Monthly Archives: August 2010

Hosts File

HOSTS FILE:
Most of you users would have noticed the existence of Hosts file both in Linux(/etc/) and windows(/system32/drivers/etc/).The host file acts like a inbuilt local DNS to a computer.To say lucidly DNS is nothing but a server which maintains a list of IP address and their corresponding Domain names.Usually all ISP’s have their own DNS which could be checked by nslookup command.

DNS servers are categorized into primary,secondary and so on.if the primary dns doesn’t have the correspoding ip which u ask for,it contacts the secondary dns and the process goes on untill a match is found.Then all the DNS in the stores the result so that it could not query thse servers again.well these are beyond hte scope of the article.

The host file in windows is extenstion less it could be edited by any text editor indiscriminate of privilages(XP and below).but in linux root access is required to edit the host file.

A host file in windows looks something like this
Code:
# Copyright (c) 1993-2006 Microsoft Corp.
#
# This is a sample HOSTS file used by Microsoft TCP/IP for Windows.
#
# This file contains the mappings of IP addresses to host names. Each
# entry should be kept on an individual line. The IP address should
# be placed in the first column followed by the corresponding host name.
# The IP address and the host name should be separated by at least one
# space.
#
# Additionally, comments (such as these) may be inserted on individual
# lines or following the machine name denoted by a ‘#’ symbol.
#
# For example:
#
# 102.54.94.97 rhino.acme.com # source server
# 38.25.63.10 x.acme.com # x client host

127.0.0.1 localhost
::1 localhost
How could hosts file be used?

1.Giving domain names for intranet servers.

For example in colleges and schools intranet servers could be given domain names by editing the hosts file of each machine connected to the lan or by configuring all the systems to use a proxy server and changing the hosts file entry of that server alone will do the work for us.
Code:
127.0.0.1 localhost
::1 localhost
132.147.170.201 http://www.pec-library.com

2.Website blocking.
It could be used by administrators to block any website by redirecting it to 127.0.0.1
it could be also used to block some adservers.some adblocking softwares work under this principle

3.Crackers.
Intruders could change the hostsfile of any compromised system and redirect them to any malware sites or to any
pr0n sites just for fun..
Code:
127.0.0.1 localhost
::1 localhost
87.123.134.55 http://www.google.com
some antivirus softwares like kaspersky alerts the user that the host file is going to be changed…

And this is the end of this article..Comments and suggestions are welcomed.

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Linux vs Windows

I hope most of you might heard of LINUX,Its nothing but a fantastic Open Source Operating System which could run on low resources (low end hardware) and could deliver a performance par better than windoz..The most important feature of Linux is it is very much secure than windowz, 95% of the Computer Viruses in the world made are either .exe or .vbs files targeting windoz users. These virus programs could not be able to run on linux….

I knew a guy who reinstalls his windows XP atleast 20 times a year due to frequent virus infections (i suppose if we ask him what is his hobby he’ll say “installing windows” LOL )

Thats enough for describing the security feature of Linux,…Linux is very much good for budding software developers,being a open source operating system they could view the source code of entire operating system and they could learn from it & modify it too….

Nothing is easy till we get practiced,If we had thought using a computer is difficult you wouldn’t be reading this and i wouln’t  posted this info, “Practice is the best teacher”..

I would recommend new users to install linux especially ubuntu on a Virtual machine and play with it a little….

I’ll post a tutorial on how to set it up soon…..   🙂

This article is in nomeans to derogate windows, windows  finds its advantages in many places in many ways.

Who a Hacker is ?

The term hacker really doesnt means the person who intrudes into your computers, cause panic across the world etc etc, Those persons are called as crackers….A hacker is a person who is a expert in his field,Expert in the sense means that he could create new things he could find the weakness in his newly created things and he could be able to modify those things….

Various movies like Hackers,Wargames etc portrayed hackers as criminals who intrude into goverment networks.The stereotypical image of a computer hacker, as portrayed by the media, is one of a shadowy figure, alone at a computer, stealing secrets and money.,This causes panic among the people…

By using words like h4x0r 1337 one could not become a hacker,one could develop his hacking skills by having a deep knowledge of the subject..There are many forums on the internet providing Dumbass tools like Password Finder PRO V 1.0.0.2 [lol] and load your computer with malware shit…There are some people using these pre-made tools,RAT’s etc to get into others computer without knowing how it works/what the damn thing they had performed,These persons are called as Script Kiddies. On the otherside there are some forums on the internet which  teaches some ethics to you and converts even a dumb script kiddie into a knowledgable person.One among them i would refer is http://www.haktstudios.com